Glossary of Terms for Ingredients used in Cooking for People with Food Allergies
Abundant Earth Organic Macrobiotic Sea Salt
Farmed from Algarve,Eastern Portugal where it is free from industrial pollution and renowned for it`s extremely high purity levels. Unrefined sea salt is naturally high in minerals and trace elements including calcium, magnesium, potassium and along with sodium. Unbleached, organic and unrefined.
Agar or agar-agar is a gelatinous substance derived from a polysaccharide that accumulates in the cell walls of agarophyte red algae. Agar (agar-agar) can be used as a laxative, a vegetarian gelatin substitute, a thickener for soups, in jellies, ice cream and other desserts
Almond milk is a milk substitute created by finely grinding almonds together with water. It enjoys a long history as a popular food. Medieval European recipes frequently called for almond milk. As well, it has always been a popular beverage in the Middle East. The modern blender makes the composition of almond milk much easier than it would have been in the Middle ages, because the blended almonds are much finer, resulting in a finer consistency milk.
Amaranth flour is made from the seed of the Amaranth plant, which is a leafy vegetable. Amaranth seeds are very high in protein, which makes a nutritious flour for wheat free and gluten free baking.
Alternative names: African spinach, Chinese spinach, Indian spinach, elephants ear.
This flour is ground from the root of the plant, and is very useful for thickening recipes. It is tasteless, and the fine powder becomes clear when it is cooked, which makes it ideal for thickening clear sauces. It is suitable for wheat free and gluten free baking.
Barley does contains a small amount of gluten, so is rarely used to make bread, with the exception of unleavened bread. It has a slightly nutty flavour, and can be used to thicken or flavour soups or stews. Blended with other alternative flours it is also fairly versatile for cakes, biscuits, pastry, dumplings etc. This flour is wheat free not gluten free.
Black sesame Seeds
Contain calcium, protein and B vitamins. Often used in Chinese Medicine for their nutritional and medicinal properties. Can be purchased at Asian food Stores.
Just one of the varieties of green bean, broad beans are usually removed from the pod before cooking. They have a distinctive flavour and a smooth, creamy texture.In season from June to August, broad beans are ideal as an accompanying vegetable served with fresh herbs such as parsley, chives, dill or thyme. To prepare and cook broad beans, remove the beans from the pod, snap off one end of the pod and split it open to reveal the beans, cook in boiling water for 5-15 minutes until just tender, really fresh smaller beans will cook quickly. Broad beans are very high in Amines.
This flour is heavier than white rice flour. It is milled from unpolished brown rice so it has a higher nutritional value than white, and as it contains the bran of the brown rice it has a higher fibre content. This also means that it has a noticeable texture, a bit grainy. It does have a slight nutty taste, which will sometimes come out in recipes depending on the other ingredients, and the texture will also contribute to a heavier product than recipes made with white rice flour.This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Buckwheat flour is not, despite its name a form of wheat, buckwheat is actually related to rhubarb. The small seeds of the plant are ground to make flour. It has a strong nutty taste so is not generally used on its own in a recipe, as the taste of the finished product can be very overpowering, and a little bitter. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Alternative names: beech wheat, kasha, saracen corn.
These large white beans have a rich, creamy texture. They are available canned or dried - dried beans must be soaked and cooked before use. Butter beans are ideal in salads, with chicken or pasta dishes and in soups and casseroles. In preparing the beans, soak the dried beans in water for 5 hours and drain. Place the beans in a saucepan and cover with water, boil briskly for 10 minutes. If the beans are to be used in a recipe, then follow the recipe. If the beans are to be cooked, simmer for 1-1˝ hours until tender. Five minutes before the end of cooking time, add salt to taste. Drain and serve.
These beans are small, oval, cream in colour and one of the haricot bean family. Available canned or dried, if purchased dried, they must be soaked and cooked prior to use. Cannellini beans are great in slow-cooked casseroles, especially pork recipes and salads.
Cayenne is a rather hot chilli pepper 2 -3 " long. It is most commonly used "ground" for flavouring various recipes including sauces, soups and stews. Substitutions include any one of the following hot paprika,chilli powder,red pepper flakes,
4 drops of hot pepper sauce.
This is ground from chick peas and has a strong slightly nutty taste. It is not generally used on its own. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Coconut Flour is gluten-free and hypoallergenic. With as much protein as wheat flour, coconut flour has none of the specific protein in wheat called "gluten". This is an advantage for a growing percentage of the population who have allergies to gluten or a wheat sensitivity.
Coconut Flour consists of the highest percentage of dietary fiber( 58%) found in any flour. Wheat bran has only is 27% fiber.
Coconut Flour can help you reach a healthy weight. Ideal for those who follow a low-carb eating plan, coconut flour works well as part of a weight loss program because it has high fiber, and foods with high fiber can help promote a feeling of full.
Cornflour is milled from corn into a fine, white powder, and is used for thickening recipes and sauces. It has a bland taste, and therefore is used in conjunction with other ingredients that will impart flavour to the recipe.
It also works very well when mixed with other flours, for example when making fine batters for tempura.
Some types of cornflour are milled from wheat but are labelled wheaten cornflour. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Alternative name: cornstarch.
Ground from corn. Heavier than cornflour, not generally interchangeable in recipes. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Cream of tartar is best known in our kitchens for helping stabilize and give more volume to beaten egg whites. It is the acidic ingredient in some brands of baking powder. It is also used to produce a creamier texture in sugary desserts such as candy and frosting, because it inhibits the formation of crystals. It is used commercially in some soft drinks, candies, bakery products, gelatin desserts, and photography products. Cream of tartar can also be used to clean brass and copper cookware.
Fructose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar), which the body can use for energy. Because it does not cause blood sugar to rise tremendously (has a low glycemic index), it was once thought that fructose was a good substitute for sucrose (table sugar). However, nutritional experts have changed their minds about this due to the increase in Fructose Malabsorption.
Is ground galangal root. Galangal is a member of the ginger family and is used in Thai, Malaysian, Vietnamese, Indonesian, Laotian and Cambodian cooking. If you don`t have this ingredient you can substitute for powdered ginger or freshly grated galangal (depending on the the recipe) fresh has more flavour than powdered.
Grape seed oil is extracted from the seeds of grapes, typically wine grapes. Since grape seeds are usually discarded as part of the wine making process, the extraction and sale of grape seed oil can be a profitable sideline, as well as an efficient use of a by product. In the twentieth century, grape seed oil began to be processed and sold in much higher volume, primarily in the United States and Europe. Many stores sell pure grape seed oil for various applications.
Guar gum can best be described as a natural food thickener, similar to locust bean gum, cornstarch or tapioca flour. Guar gum is said to have significantly more thickening ability than cornstarch, at a fraction of the cost. This has made guar gum a popular additive in products such as puddings and ice creams.
Kamut is an ancient type of wheat related to the durum variety used in modern bread making. Kamut is believed to be of Egyptian origin.Compared to common wheat, Kamut is richer in protein (by between 15% and 40%), minerals such as magnesium and zinc, Vitamin Bs and Vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids, but contains a little less dietary fibre. Kamut provides much energy and is appreciated by people with active lifestyles. It is easy to digest and is generally well tolerated by those with a sensitivity to gluten. Kamut flour is not refined or bleached, and thus retains all its nutritional qualities.Kamut flour has a mild, somewhat sweet taste. It can be substituted for wheat in any recipe and is used to make bread, cookies, crackers, cakes, muffins, crepes, pasta and breakfast cereal. Kamut kernels can be cooked pilaf-style, like rice, bulgur or couscous, and make a good addition to soups.
Contain protein, vitamins, minerals and omega 3 fatty acids. I prefer to keep these in the fridge as they do have a short shelf life. Also I usually grind them before putting into the recipes.
Are the hulled seeds found in pumpkins that contain protein and some minerals.
Lupin is uniquely high in protein (up to 40%) and dietary fibre (30%) low in fat (6%) and contains minimal starch and therefore has a very low Glycemic Index (GI). In terms of nutritional and health benefits on offer, lupin seed is an attractive `GM free` alternative to soybeans.
Ground from corn. Heavier than cornflour, not generally interchangeable in recipes. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive. It is produced from starch by partial hydrolysis and is usually found as a creamy-white hygroscopic spraydried powder. Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose, and might be either moderately sweet or almost flavourless. It is commonly used for the production of natural sodas.
Comes from the grass family, and is used as a cereal in many African and Asian countries. It can be used to thicken soups and make flat breads and griddle cakes. Because it lacks any form of gluten it`s not suited to many types of baking. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
This flour should not be confused with potato starch flour. Potato flour has a strong potato flavour and is a heavy flour so a little goes a long way. It does not have a very long shelf life. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Potato starch is made through an extensive process of washing, sometimes cooking, and then separating the starch present in potato cell walls so that it can be made into powdered or liquid form. In cooking, potato starch is often considered a substitute thickener for cornstarch or white flour. However, it has a higher heat point than cornstarch, so it may be superior for certain foods that require high temperatures.
Another benefit to potato starch, especially as compared to wheat flour as a thickener, is that it is gluten free. This means folks who want nice thick gravy, or soups or stews, but haven’t been able to achieve this with flour due to gluten intolerance, can use potato starch instead with excellent results. Like cornstarch, you generally have to dissolve the potato starch in a little bit of water before adding it as a thickener so it will blend easily with other ingredients. Many people especially prefer starch made from potatoes or corn when thickening sauces because it can help the sauces remain translucent; whereas flour creates a more muddied appearing sauce.
Puffed rice is a type of puffed grain made from rice; usually made by heating rice kernels under high pressure in the presence of steam, though the method of manufacture varies widely.
Puffed rice is used in snack foods and breakfast cereals, and is also a popular street food in some parts of the world.
Quinoa grains contain essential amino acids like lysine and good quantities of calcium, phosphorus, and iron. After harvest, the grains need to be processed, in order to remove the coating containing bitter-tasting saponins.
Quinoa grains are in general cooked the same way as rice and can be used in a wide range of dishes. Quinoa leaves are also eaten as a leaf vegetable, much like amaranth, but the commercial availability of quinoa greens is currently limited.
Quinoa is related to the plant family of spinach and beets. It has been used for over 5,000 years as a cereal, and the Incas called it the mother seed. Quinoa provides a good source of vegetable protein and it is the seeds of the quinoa plant that are ground to make flour. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
The rice bran I use for my recipes in the powdered form. Do try and buy organic rice bran, as there is information out there that rice bran may contain inorganic arsenic. Rice bran is made from the outer husks of the rice. I will buy Organic everything if it`s available.
A white flour milled from regular (not glutinous) rice used in Asian cooking for making cakes and desserts. Find in most Thai, Vietnamese or other Asian markets. Glutinous rice flour is an entirely different product.
Brown rice flour is flour which has been ground from unhulled rice kernels, also known as brown rice. It can be used as a flourbstitute in many dishes, especially in combination with other flours. Since brown rice flour is naturally gluten free, many gluten intolerant individuals use it for cooking projects.
Dried sheets of seaweed used for making sushi. Contains some Vitamin A, Vitamin C, calcium, iron and protein. Not to be used if you have a seafood allergy.
This flour is a strongly flavoured flour, dark in colour. Breads made with rye flour are denser than those made with wheat, for example pumpernickel which is virtually black. Rye flour has a low gluten content, but it can also be used for recipes such as pancakes and muffins. Rye is wheat free not gluten free.
A drink usually made in a blender. May be dairy, soya, nut milk and fruit based or fruit juice and fruit based.
This is a relatively new flour on the market, and can be difficult to find in health food shops. It is ground from sorghum grain, which is similar to millet. The flour is used to make porridge or flat unleavened breads. It is an important staple in Africa and India. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Soya flour is a high protein flour with a nutty taste. It is not generally used on it`s own in recipes, but when combined with other flours is very successful as an alternative flour. Can be used to thicken recipes or added as a flavour enhancer. It needs to be carefully stored as it is a high fat flour and can go rancid if not stored properly. A cool, dark environment is recommended and can even be stored in the refrigerator. This flour is wheat free and gluten free.
Stevia is a natural plant-based sweetener which contains no calories and no carbohydrates. Depending on the preparation and concentration Stevia sweetens up to 300 times more than traditional sugar – an ideal way of enjoying sweetness with no worries.
Spelt is similar to wheat in appearance. However, spelt has a tougher husk than wheat, which may help protect the nutrients in spelt. Spelt flour has a somewhat nuttier and slightly sweeter flavor than whole wheat flour. Spelt contains more protein than wheat, and the protein in spelt is easier to digest. This means that some people who are allergic to wheat may be able to tolerate spelt. Spelt has gluten, just like wheat, so spelt is not suitable for a gluten-free diet.
Xanthan Gum is a natural sugar fermented from corn. Used in the cosmetic & food industry to thicken and stabilize.